Le firme elettroniche sono riconosciute come legalmente vincolanti in molti Paesi del mondo. Scopri di più sulla legalità della firma elettronica nei vari Paesi con questa guida.
As a member state of the European Union, Spain follows eIDAS, the legal framework that recognizes eSignatures as legally valid in the EU.
eIDAS applied to Spain in 2016 and states that “An electronic signature shall not be denied legal effect and admissibility as evidence in legal proceedings solely on the grounds that it is in an electronic form or that it does not meet the requirements for qualified electronic signatures.” Following the eIDAS regulation, eSignatures are now legally valid in all EU member states.
Regulation (EU) No 910/2014 on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market (the “eIDAS Regulation”)
The eIDAS regulation defines three types of eSignature (SES, AES, QES) and is a new regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European Single Market. It establishes a legal framework for people, companies (in particular small to mid-size enterprises) and public administrations to safely access services and execute transactions digitally across all the EU member states.
eIDAS entered into force on 17 September 2014 and applied from 1 July 2016. It repealed and replaced the Electronic Signatures Directive 1999/93/EC, a European Union directive on the use of eSignatures in electronic contracts within the EU.
La firma elettronica standard (SES) implica la presenza di dati elettronici logicamente collegati ad altri dati elettronici (ad esempio, un documento), usati dal firmatario dei dati elettronici per firmare il documento. Molti strumenti elettronici, incluse password, codici PIN e firme scansionate, possono essere considerati SES.
Una firma elettronica avanzata (AES) deve garantire che tutte le firme siano collegate in modo univoco al firmatario e siano in grado, al contempo, di identificarlo. Deve essere creata usando i dati di creazione della firma elettronica che il firmatario può, con un elevato livello di attendibilità, usare sotto il proprio esclusivo controllo.
A qualified electronic signature (QES) is a stricter form of AES and the only signature type given the same legal value as handwritten signatures. It is an advanced electronic signature with a qualified digital certificate that has been created by a qualified signature creation device (QSCD). The QSCD has to be issued by a qualified EU Trust Service Provider (TSP) on the European Union Trust List (EUTL.)
The law does not exclude specific types of agreements. However, certain types of agreements such as wills, court documents, land titles, may still require written, paper communications.